As people become skilled at navigating the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), they’re often surprised to learn that it not only places controls on exports, 但这也与临时进口有关.

在该规例的其中一个较为简洁的条文中(ITAR 120.53),临时导入定义为:

“…bringing into the United States from a foreign country any defense article that is:

  1. To be returned to the country from which it was shipped or taken; or
  2. Any defense article that is in transit to another foreign destination.”

The definition includes “withdrawal of a defense article from a customs bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone for the purpose of returning it to the country of origin or country from which it was shipped or for shipment to another foreign destination.”

A common scenario for classification as a temporary import is something being brought into the United States for service or one-for-one replacement. Other examples include equipment brought for display at trade shows or private demonstration to prospective customers.

Permanent imports, on the other hand, 进口到美国是供国内消费吗.

For example, importing guided cannon rounds for testing and possible sale to the U.S. government is a permanent import because the rounds are consumed domestically; once fired, 不能退货.

So the first question that needs to be resolved is whether an import is temporary or permanent. 但这也提出了一个问题:如果ITAR, which is administered under the umbrella of the State Department, 控制临时导入, 谁控制永久进口?

这些,如在 ITAR 120.53, “are regulated by the Attorney General under the direction of the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, 及爆炸品”(ATF).

Companies that work in defense-related areas and are used to navigating the ITAR may not realize that some of their activities may require permission from the ATF.

Both bureaucracies acquired these responsibilities as a result of the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, so while there are two different agencies to oversee potentially related import activities, 他们的规定有一些相似之处.

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U.S. Munitions List v. U.S. 军需品进口清单

ITAR controls over temporary imports apply only to items on the U.S. Munitions List (USML), which is administered by the Directorate of 国防贸易管制 (DDTC).

ATF controls over permanent imports apply to items on the distinct but similarly named U.S. 军需品进口清单 (USMIL).

如果USML上出现了什么, you need permission from the DDTC to import it on a temporary basis. That permission may come in the form of a license or an exemption.

如果有什么东西在美军方, you need ATF permission to import it on a permanent basis by obtaining a permit or an exemption.

Many items can be found on both lists, but they aren’t identical. Some items that appear on the USML don’t show up on the USMIL – allowing the possibility that an item which can’t be brought into the country on a temporary basis without prior approval can, in fact, 永久进口.

Both lists follow the same structure (see chart), and at one time were more similar. 但随着时间的推移,它们已经分道扬镳, and a comparison of their high-level categories shows a clear distinction between the concerns each list addresses.

The ITAR and the USML focus on national security – preventing certain U.S. 军品不被敌国利用. 它们不仅包括武器和弹药, 还有防弹衣之类的东西, 先进的电子设备和某些卫星技术.

The ATF and USMIL are more concerned with domestic security and anti-terrorism – placing emphasis on guns and explosives. ATF的清单比ITAR列出了更多的枪支, 包括半自动武器, 不再出现在USML上. But it doesn’t bother with things like military electronics, night vision systems, etc.

Comparison of U.S. Munitions List v. 军需品进口清单

I Firearms & Related Articles Firearms
II Guns and Armament 炮兵投影仪
III 弹药和军械 Ammunition
IV Launch Vehicles, Guided Missiles, Ballistic Missiles,  Rockets, Torpedoes, Bombs, and Mines Launch Vehicles, Guided Missiles, Ballistic Missiles, Rockets, Torpedoes, Bombs and Mines
V Explosives and Energetic Materials, Propellants, Incendiary Agents, and Their Constituents Reserved
VI  战争水面舰艇和特殊海军装备 战争船只和特殊海军装备
VII  Ground Vehicles 坦克和军用车辆
VIII  飞机及相关文章 飞机及相关设备
IX  军事训练设备和训练 Reserved
X  个人防护装备 Reserved
XI  军事电子 Reserved
XII  火控、激光、成像和制导设备 Reserved
XIII  物料及杂项物品 Reserved
XIV Toxicological Agents, Including Chemical Agents, Biological Agents, and Associated Equipment 毒理学试剂和设备及放射设备
XV  航天器及相关文章 Reserved
XVI  核武器相关文章 核武器设计和试验设备
XVII Classified Articles, Technical Data, and Defense Services Not Otherwise Enumerated Reserved
XVIII  定向能武器 Reserved
XIX  燃气涡轮发动机及相关设备 Reserved
XX  潜水船及相关文章 潜水船、海洋学及相关设备
XXI Articles, Technical Data, and Defense Services Not Otherwise Enumerated 各种各样的文章

从事炸药生产的公司已经习惯了这些细微差别. But companies that work in other defense-related fields may not realize they need permission from ATF for certain import activities.


The requirements and processes for securing permission to import items under both the ITAR and the ATF are similar – though not identical. 两者都要求进口受控项目的实体进行注册.

Registration for export/import activities subject to the ITAR is administered by the DDTC using Form DS-2032,必须通过 electronic portal of the Defense Export Control and Compliance System (DECCS). 截至2023年3月,注册费 起价为每年2250美元.

Application to register as an importer with the ATF is handled through ATF Form 5330.4. 截至2023年3月, 起价为每年250美元.



获得a的过程 根据国际贸易法临时进口许可证 (for items on the USML) is different depending on whether an item is classified or unclassified. The application form for unclassified items is Form DSP-61; and DSP-85 for classified items.

通过ATF获得进口许可证的第一步是 ATF Form 6.

Both regulations allow the possibility of exemptions from the usual license or permit requirements. For example, an ATF import permit isn’t required for items on the USMIL if the activity is conducted under contract with the Department of Defense.

Exemptions for temporary import licenses under the ITAR are provided in Section 123.4 of the ITAR. The ATF提供许可证豁免清单 on its website.

寻找额外的指导? 查看LOL外围下注最新的点播网络研讨会: 导航ATF控制入门.


你对永久性vs .有问题吗. temporary imports? Visit to learn about our company, our faculty, our staff and our esteemed 出口合规专家(ECoP®)认证计划. To find upcoming e-seminarslive seminars and live webinars and 浏览LOL外围下注的目录80多个按需网络研讨会参观LOL外围下注的ECTI学院. 您也可以致电LOL外围下注 540-433-3977 了解更多信息.

Scott Gearity 是ECTI公司的总裁.

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